Cutback Bitumen Description
Cutback Bitumen ( Liquid Bitumen ) is Bitumen that is dissolved in a solvent. Typical solvents include Naphtha, gasoline and kerosene, white spirit etc. The type of solvent controls the curing time while the amount determines the viscosity of the Liquid Bitumen. Bitumen is ‘cutback’ by adding controlled amounts of petroleum distillates such as kerosene. This is done to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen temporarily so it can penetrate pavements more effectively or to allow spraying at temperatures that are too cold for successful sprayed sealing with neat bitumen. The materials used to cutback bitumen will evaporate after application to leave the remaining material similar in hardness to the original bitumen.
Cutback bitumen is a range of binders that are produced by blending (mixing) penetration grade bitumen and a hydrocarbon solvent, such as paraffin or mineral turpentine.
When the solvent has evaporated, the binder returns to its original penetration grade to tie the particles together. Cutback bitumen gets its name from the solvent that is involved in the process, because the solvent “cuts back” or evaporates, leaving behind the binder to “get on with the job”. The solvent used in cutback bitumen is called the “cutter” or “flux”.
Three types of solvents are used for the blending process: slow-curing, medium-curing or rapid-curing solvents. The latter two are the most common in South Africa. The choice of the solvent determines the rate at which the bitumen will cure when exposed to air. A rapid-curing (RC) solvent will evaporate faster than a medium-curing (MC) solvent. Curing relates to the evaporation rate of the solvent which influences the setting time of the bitumen. The viscosity of the cutback bitumen is determined by the proportion of solvent added: the higher the proportion of solvent, the lower the viscosity of the cutback.
Cutbacks differ from penetration grade bitumen in that they are more workable — in other words, they can be more easily reshaped. Less heat is required to liquefy cutback bitumen than penetration bitumen, making it easier to use at lower temperatures.
Typical cutback bitumens are MC 30 and RC 250. The letters in the name refer to the curing action of the solvent, and the number to the viscosity of the binder.
Cutback bitumen is classified based on viscosity grade. It is divided into three categories:
1- Rapid-Curing (RC) :The cutback bitumen is known as rapid-curing (RC) if the bitumen is solved in gasoline. The reason is that evaporation occurs quickly and the bitumen is deposited.
2- Medium-Curing (MC) :MC cutbacks are prepared by solving bitumen in kerosene which evaporates more slowly than gasoline.
3- Slow-Curing (SC) :Slow-curing cutback may be achieved from solving bitumen in gasoil or fuel oil or directly from distillation of crude oil.
Application of Cutback Bitumen
Cutback bitumens suitable for primer sealing can also be used in the manufacture of pre-mix asphalt, which is used in patch repairs. Cutback bitumens are used extensively in sprayed sealing applications, particularly in cooler weather where they provide improved initial stone retention due to their lower viscosity. Typically, a single application of the appropriate cutback bitumen is sprayed onto the primed pavement onto which aggregate is laid.
Prime and Tack Coating
The process of priming involves applying a low viscosity binder to a prepared but usually unbound aggregate base. It is intended to be absorbed by the top layers of the base and provide a surface more easily ‘wetted’ by a subsequent bituminous covering. The primer will be able to carry traffic for a short time (although this practice is uncommon) and help control dust. Generally, primers are applied at rates between 0.5 and 1.4 L/m2. Cutback bitumens suitable for priming are also used for tack coats, which are applied to an underlying surface to help with the adhesion of subsequent asphalt layer. A typical application rate is between 0.2 and 0.4 L/m2.
Where temperatures are too cool for an effective priming operation, or where traffic is likely to upset a primed surface before the final seal can be sprayed, a primer seal can be used to give adequate protection of the pavement for periods of up to 6 to 12 months. Cutback bitumens suitable for primer sealing can also be used in the manufacture of pre-mix asphalt, which is used in patch repairs.
Cutback bitumens are used extensively in sprayed sealing applications, particularly in cooler weather where they provide improved initial stone retention due to their lower viscosity. Typically, a single application of the appropriate cutback bitumen is sprayed onto the primed pavement onto which aggregate is laid.
HJ Oil GRUOP supplies and provides transfer of technology for production of all cutback Bitumens in correspondence to ASTM D2026, D2027, D2028, AASHTO M82-75 (2008), AASHTO M92-92 (2008). For any inquiries, please contact our sales team on firstname.lastname@example.org
- Slow Curing Cutbacks (ASTM D2026)
- Medium Curing Cutbacks (ASTM D2027 or AASHTO M82-75 2008)
- Rapid Curing Cutbacks (ASTM D2028 or AASHTO M81-92 2008)
USES OF CUTBACK & EMULSION BITUMEN IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF ROAD MAINTENANCE
|System||Description & Uses||Recomende Product|
|SurfaceDressing||An application of binder on the road surface by a bitumen distributor followed by a covering of aggregates/chippings spread by a hopper gritter. Can be a single or double-layer surface dressing||Cutback: MC -3000|
|Prime Coating||An application of binder on a granular base to prepare for an asphalt surfacing .Normally a slow setting emulsion or cutback is used for better penetration purposes to seal off the road base. The rate of application can vary from 0.4-1.4 liter/m2||Cutback : MC-30 MC -70|
|Tack Coating||A very light application of binder –hand or machine sprayed –to ensure bonding between the existing layer and the new overlay. The rate of application is normally between 0.25-0.7 liter/m2, depending on the surface being sprayed||Emulsion: K1-40 : RS-1K: RS-2K|
|Semi– Grouting /Penetration Macadam||An application of hot binder on a compacted layer of coarse aggregate||Emulsion : RS-3K : MC-3000 Other : Bitumen|
|Slurry Sealing||A maintenance technique where specially tailored emulsion, aggregates, water, and /or mineral filler is mixed in an on-site distributor and spread on an existing road surface at a thickness of 3-6 mm. It is both a preventive and corrective maintenance method for sealing of surface cracks, waterproofing asphalt surfaces and stopping oxidation||Emulsion: ALFA/SS|
|Fog Sealing /Mist Spraying||It is similar to tack coating in that is a very light application of diluted emulsion for renewal/rejuvenation of old asphalt surfaces. The emulsion is usually diluted to a concentration of about 25-30% binder and applied at a rate of 0.3-0.8 liter/m2|
Emulsion : K1-40 : SS-1K : ALFA
|Dust Binding||A light application of 0.5-2.0 liter/m2 using diluted bitumen emulsion for dust control on unpaved roads||Emulsion: K1-40: SS-1K|