Description of Base Oil
Base oil is used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids. Different products require different compositions and properties in the oil. One of the most important factors is the liquid’s viscosity at various temperatures.
Whether or not a crude oil is suitable to be made into a base oil is determined by the concentration of base oil molecules as well as how easily these can be extracted. Base oil is produced by means of refining crude oil.
This means that crude oil is heated in order that various distillates can be separated from one another. During the heating process, light and heavy hydrocarbons are separated – the light ones can be refined to make petrol and other fuels, while the heavier ones are suitable for bitumen and base oils.
There are large numbers of crude oils all around the world that are used to produce base oils. The most common one is a type of paraffinic crude oil, although there are also naphthenic crude oils that create products with better solubility and very good properties at low temperatures.
By using hydrogenation technology, in which sulfur and aromatics are removed using hydrogen under high pressure, you can obtain extremely pure base oils, which are suitable when quality requirements are particularly stringent.
Chemical substances – additives – are added to the base oil in order to meet the quality requirements for the end products in terms of, for example, friction and cleaning properties. Certain types of motor oils contain more than twenty percent additives.
Base Oil Groups
The first three groups are refined from petroleum crude oil.
Group IV base oils are full synthetic (polyalphaolefin) oils. Group V is for all other base oils not included in Groups I through IV. Before all the additives are added to the mixture, lubricating oils begin as one or more of these five API groups.
Group I base oils are classified as less than 90 percent saturates, greater than 0.03 percent sulfur and with a viscosity-index range of 80 to 120. The temperature range for these oils is from 32 to 150 degrees F. Group I base oils are solvent-refined, which is a simpler refining process. This is why they are the cheapest base oils on the market.
Group II base oils are defined as being more than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and with a viscosity index of 80 to 120. They are often manufactured by hydrocracking, which is a more complex process than what is used for Group I base oils. Since all the hydrocarbon molecules of these oils are saturated,
Group II base oils have better antioxidation properties. They also have a clearer color and cost more in comparison to Group I base oils. Still, Group II base oils are becoming very common on the market today and are priced very close to Group I oils.
Group III base oils are greater than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index above 120. These oils are refined even more than Group II base oils and generally are severely hydrocracked (higher pressure and heat). This longer process is designed to achieve a purer base oil.
Although made from crude oil, Group III base oils are sometimes described as synthesized hydrocarbons. Like Group II base oils, these oils are also becoming more prevalent.
Group IV base oils are polyalphaolefins (PAOs). These synthetic base oils are made through a process called synthesizing. They have a much broader temperature range and are great for use in extreme cold conditions and high heat applications.
Group V base oils are classified as all other base oils, including silicone, phosphate ester, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyester, biolabs, etc. These base oils are at times mixed with other base stocks to enhance the oil’s properties. An example would be a PAO-based compressor oil that is mixed with a polyester.
Esters are common Group V base oils used in different lubricant formulations to improve the properties of the existing base oil. Ester oils can take more abuse at higher temperatures and will provide superior detergency compared to a PAO synthetic base oil, which in turn increases the hours of use.
Reconditioned oil is a subcategory of recycled oil, where recycled oil is mixed with additives to help prolong its usable life. Reconditioned oil is typically only good for one-time use, however, and not suitable in automobiles.
Automotive oil recycling involves the recycling of used oils and the creation of new products from the recycled oils, and includes the recycling of motor oil and hydraulic oil.
Oil recycling also benefits the environment. increased opportunities for consumers to recycle oil lessens the likelihood of used oil being dumped on lands and in waterways. For example, one gallon of motor oil dumped into waterways has the potential to pollute one million gallons of water.
Additionally, limited availability of feedstock required for the manufacture of virgin oil is driving the need for use of recycled base oil. Producing base oil from crude oil is an energy-intensive process.
Uses of RC Base Oil:
Recycling used oil keeps it from polluting soil and water.
Motor oil does not wear out—it just gets dirty—so recycling it saves a valuable resource.
Less energy is required to produce a gallon of re-refined base stock than a base stock from crude oil.
Uses of Base Oil:
Base oil serves as a base stock for several industrial lubricants
- Motor oil
- Industrial oil
- Lubricating greases
- Metal processing fluids
- Hydraulic oils
- Transformer oils
Base Oil packed in new or used 210 kg drums, Iso tank, flex tanks, and IBC tank. Each 20-foot container takes 80 drums.
Handling health & Safety
Lubricants consisting of highly refined mineral oils with specification additives. In normal conditions of use, this lubricant presents no particular toxic hazard. All lubricants, of any kind should be handled with great care, particularly avoiding can contact with the skin.
Prevent any splashing, and keep away from combustible materials. Store undercover and away from any risk of pollution. Dispose of the used oil correctly; don’t pour down drains, into watercourses or the soil.